BrainGate-enabled use of an assistive robot by S3 to drink a beverage using neurally-controlled 2-D movement and hand state control of the DLR robot arm, trial day 1959 (April 12, 2011). The video begins with the first successful reach, grasp, drink, and replace trial. Neural control of the movement of the DLR arm is enabled only within the plane of the table. After the participant successfully grasps the bottle under neural control (state command), it is raised directly upward off the table under pre-programmed computer control. 2D neural control, parallel to the tabletop plane, is then resumed. If a grasp command is issued when the arm is in a small subset of the workspace immediately near the participant’s mouth, the wrist pronates to allow her to sip from the straw (her usual method of drinking, as she does not have adequate motor control of her mouth to drink directly from a glass). After drinking the coffee, she issues another ‘grasp’ state command, which supinates the wrist to return the bottle to an upright position, at which point 2D neural control is resumed. When she has positioned the hand back over the table to the desired location, she issues a final grasp command, which lowers the bottle, releases the hand, and then withdraws the arm. After the first successful trial, there were two aborted trials (one due to a technical error by a researcher not preparing the hand to initiate a grasp in response to a proper command, the other due to the potential for pushing the bottle off the table, not shown); this was followed by the second and third successful trials, which occurred in succession. On the third trial, a researcher placed his hand near the bottle out of concern that it might be pushed off the table, but in fact the participant successfully grasps the bottle and then drinks from it. This was followed by an aborted trial due again due to the potential for pushing the bottle off the table (not shown), and then a fourth successful trial. The yellow dot in the lower right corner indicates times when the participant issued a grasp command; the dot remains yellow until 2D control is returned, which was dependent upon the phase of the task. 2D control was returned automatically after the bottle was picked up or placed back down on the table; 2D control was also returned if a grasp command was issued when the participant’s prior command was to supinate the hand after having just pronated it to take a drink.